Proving a Thesis
argumentative thesis – a thesis which is debatable.
debatable – an issue for which there is more than one position; a controversial topic
argumentative essay – an essay whose thesis is to prove a debatable thesis. Since all essays take a stand on a topic even when describing or defining, it can be argued that all essays are argumentative.
evidence – the supporting information used such as examples, statistics, descriptions, comparisons, and illustrations; also called proof, support, or supporting evidence.
reliable evidence – consistent evidence; would the same circumstances have the same result
reliable narrator – a general presumption in sources that are purportedly factual is that the writer is reliable; however, that it is not necessarily accurate that the writer is presenting consistent or even accurate information even when that writer thinks he or she is. The term reliable narrator is used more frequently in literary analysis to describe that the person telling the story can be trusted to be giving reliable information.
unreliable narrator – when the person writing the source is not consistent or accurate. The term reliable narrator is used more frequently in literary analysis to describe that the person telling the story cannot be trusted to be giving reliable information.
accurate evidence – factual evidence
sufficient evidence – sufficiency is a question of whether even though the evidence used to prove the thesis may be reliable and accurate, it may not be enough to prove the thesis
representative evidence – even if the evidence is reliable, accurate, and sufficient, does the evidence represent the entire group involved in the analysis. For example, evidence which is reliable, accurate, and sufficient that shows a high correlation of pesticide content in certain foods may not have been drawn from samples from all over the country, so the incidence may be limited only to the area from which the sample was drawn
relevant evidence – while evidence offered may be reliable, accurate, sufficient, and even representative, it may not actually prove the point (the thesis)
refute – argue against the presented thesis or evidence in support of the thesis.
refutation – the act of refuting
concede – agree to a thesis or item of evidence