**logic **– evidence should be evaluated for logic; does the evidence have any logical fallacies

**inductive reasoning **– logic that draws a generalization from a particular piece of information; subject to error since the particular observation is not necessarily representative of a larger group. Since there is one rotting apple in the bag, all the apples must be rotting. See Logical Fallacies and Appeals. link

**inductive leap** – the jump from the particular to a universal rule

**hasty generalization **– the term applied to the erroneous result from an inductive leap; one of the logical fallacies

**deductive reasoning **– logic that draws a conclusion about a particular situation from a general rule; more likely to result in an accurate conclusion since a general rule usually applies to all situations within its category: All flowers need water; therefore, petunias need water.

**self-evident** – evidence that is apparent by observation or reasoning

**syllogism **– a three-part sequence of reasoned thoughts to draw a logical conclusion: All flowers need water. Petunias are flowers. Petunias need water.

**major premise** – the general or universal assumption used to make a logical analysis: All flowers need water. Note that if a major premise is not accurate, the resulting conclusion will not be accurate although it may be logical.

**minor premise **– the assumption pertaining to an example in the major premise: Petunias are flowers. Not that if a minor premise is not accurate, the resulting conclusion will not be accurate although it may be logical.

**conclusion (logical conclusion)** – the resulting logical thought of analyzing the major and minor premise; logical conclusions are not necessarily true or accurate.

**valid argument** – an argument which is based on logical analysis of information; not necessarily true

**sound argument** – an argument based on a syllogism that has accurate major and minor premises

**Toulmin Logic** – a form of logic that uses claim, grounds, and warrant for analyzing the logic of an argument

**claim **– the thesis; the point that is to be proved in Toulmin Logic

**grounds **– the evidence (proof, support) for the claim in Toulmin Logic

**warrant **– the result assumption of an analysis of claim and grounds in Toulmin Logic.